Wine and addiction alcoholism Psychology Psychologie, le vin et les addictions alcoolisme. pompette une bande dessinée sur l’alcoolisme. a comics about alcoholism

Pompette (2021) - zine

“There is alcoholism when an individual has lost the freedom to refrain from drinking alcohol”- FOUQUET

The zine POMPETTE is my very first project of comics. 

Alcoholism is a social taboo, we don’t talk about alcoholism, we don’t talk about women who drink. Women who drink, no matter the situation, are judged a lot, mainly as immoral, less virtuous, less sophisticated, less rational. They are seen as sexually more open, it’s a social code “I drink therefore I am sexually available”

The world of wine has long been a world of men, even though women used to be the small hands, working in the fields and collecting the grapes. 


Addictions are cerebral pathologies defined by a dependence on a substance or an activity, with deleterious consequences. This conduct of excess is part of an enjoyment that goes “beyond the pleasure principle” (Freud, 1920). Addicts are “slaves of quantity” (McDougall, 2001).

Ethanol, found in alcohol, is the psychoactive substance responsible for the effects of alcoholic beverages. Two phases follow: first, it is the disinhibition, the psychic and motor arousal, the tipsy (pompette in French) effect. After the sedation, you feel heavy, tired. If you repeat this behavior regularly and excessively, you risk settling into alcoholic illness.

An obsession with alcohol (craving) and signs of withdrawal (tremors, sweat)  appear when you don’t drink. As the effect of alcohol gradually loses its strength, the daily doses are increased to regain the effects of the first few times.

Alcoholic illness results in the loss of the freedom not to drink (freedom to be sober), accompanied by medical, psychological and social complications (such as progressive desocialization). It is a multifactorial disease in terms of both causes and manifestations and effects. Its development and evolution are part of a continuum with strong individual variations.

Wine and addiction alcoholism Psychology Psychologie, le vin et les addictions alcoolisme. pompette une bande dessinée sur l’alcoolisme. a comics about alcoholism

The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test)

The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) is a simple and effective method of screening for unhealthy alcohol use, defined as risky or hazardous consumption or any alcohol use disorder.

Based on the data from a multinational World Health Organization collaborative study, the AUDIT has become the world’s most widely used alcohol screening instrument since its publication in 1989. It is currently available in approximately 40 languages.

You don’t speak English ? Click here to do the test in your native language. 

QUESTIONNAIRE : 

Please choose the answer that is correct for you

1. How often do you have a drink containing alcohol?
· Never
· Monthly or less
· 2-4 times a month
· 2-3 times a week
· 4 or more times a week

2. How many standard drinks containing alcohol do you have on a typical day when
drinking?
· 1 or 2
· 3 or 4
· 5 or 6
· 7 to 9
· 10 or more

3. How often do you have six or more drinks on one occasion?
· Never
· Less than monthly
· Monthly
· Weekly
· Daily or almost daily

4. During the past year, how often have you found that you were not able to stop
drinking once you had started?
· Never
· Less than monthly
· Monthly
· Weekly
· Daily or almost daily

5. During the past year, how often have you failed to do what was normally expected
of you because of drinking?
· Never
· Less than monthly
· Monthly
· Weekly
· Daily or almost daily

6. During the past year, how often have you needed a drink in the morning to get
yourself going after a heavy drinking session?
· Never
· Less than monthly
· Monthly
· Weekly
· Daily or almost daily

7. During the past year, how often have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after
drinking?
· Never
· Less than monthly
· Monthly
· Weekly
· Daily or almost daily

8. During the past year, have you been unable to remember what happened the night
before because you had been drinking?
· Never
· Less than monthly
· Monthly
· Weekly
· Daily or almost daily

9. Have you or someone else been injured as a result of your drinking?
· No
· Yes, but not in the past year
· Yes, during the past year

10. Has a relative or friend, doctor or other health worker been concerned about your
drinking or suggested you cut down?
· No
· Yes, but not in the past year
· Yes, during the past year

Scoring the AUDIT

Scores for each question range from 0 to 4, with the first response for each question (eg never) scoring 0, the second (eg less than monthly) scoring 1, the third (eg monthly) scoring 2, the fourth (eg weekly) scoring 3, and the last response (eg. daily or almost daily) scoring 4. For questions 9 and 10, which only have three responses, the scoring is 0, 2 and 4 (from left to right).

– A score of 8 or more is associated with harmful or hazardous drinking

– A score of 13 or more in women, and 15 or more in men, is likely to indicate alcohol dependence.

Read more at AUDIT website

health professionals that can help treatment

Many health professionals can play a role in treatment. Below is a list of providers and the type of care they may offer. Be always attentive to the professional’s diploma and certification. 

   – Primary Care Provider (M.D., D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine)), additionally you may see a Nurse Practitioner or Physician’s Assistant

Treatment : Medications, Brief Behavioral Treatment, Referral to Specialist

    – Psychiatrist (M.D., D.O.)

Treatment : Medications, Behavioral Treatment

     – Psychologist (Ph.D., Psy.D., M.A.)

Treatment : Behavioral Treatment

    – Social Worker (M.S.W. (Master of Social Work), L.C.S.W. (Licensed Clinical Social Worker))

Treatment : Behavioral Treatment

    – Alcohol Counselor (certification)

Treatment : Behavioral Treatment

See more about therapies here

about the zine

Riso print 

Zine paper version 

 

Special PACK 

(zine + riso print) 

Wine and addiction alcoholism Psychology Psychologie, le vin et les addictions alcoolisme. pompette une bande dessinée sur l’alcoolisme. a comics about alcoholism

References

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Chou SP, Dawson DA (1994) A study of the gender differences in morbidity among individuals diagnosed with alcohol abuse and/or dependence. J Subst Abuse 6:381–392

Diehl, A., Croissant, B., Batra, A. et al. Alcoholism in women: is it different in onset and outcome compared to men?. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosc 257, 344–351 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-007-0737-z

Gomberg ES (1993) Women and alcohol: use and abuse. J Nerv Ment Dis 181:211–219

Hanna E, Dufour MC, Elliott S, Stinson F, Harford TC (1992) Dying to be equal: women, alcohol, and cardiovascular disease. Br J Addict 87:1593–1597

Ismene L. Petrakis, M.D., Gerardo Gonzalez, M.D., Robert Rosenheck, M.D., and John H. Krystal, M.D. (2002). Comorbidity of Alcoholism and Psychiatric Disorders, 26(2): 81–89. Available online 

McDougall, J. (2001). The psychic economy of addiction. In J. Petrucelli & C.Stuart (Eds.), Hungers and Compulsions : The psychodynamic treatment of eating disorders and addictions (pp. 3-26). New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.

Ross HE (1989) Alcohol and drug abuse in treated alcoholics: a comparison of men and women. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 13:810–816

Saunders JB, Aasland OG, Babor TF et al. Development of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption — II. Addiction 1993, 88: 791–803.

Schuckit M, Pitts FN, Reich T, King LJ, Winokur G. AlcoholismI. Two Types of Alcoholism in WomenArch Gen Psychiatry. 1969;20(3):301–306. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1969.01740150045007 

Schuckit MA, Daeppen JB, Tipp JE, Hesselbrock M, Bucholz KK (1998) The clinical course of alcohol-related problems in alcohol dependent and nonalcohol dependent drinking women and men. J Stud Alcohol 59:581–590

Timko C, Moos RH, Finney JW, Connell EG (2002) Gender differences in help-utilization and the 8-year course of alcohol abuse. Addiction 97:877–889

Winokur, G., Rimmer, J., & Reich, T. (1971). Alcoholism IV: Is There More Than One Type of Alcoholism? British Journal of Psychiatry, 118(546), 525-531. doi:10.1192/bjp.118.546.525